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Sao Tome and Principe Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

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Introduction Sao Tome and Principe
Background:
Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. Although the first free elections were held in 1991, the political environment has been one of continued instability with frequent changes in leadership and coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to have a significant impact on the country's economy.
People Sao Tome and Principe
Population:
199,579 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 47.3% (male 47,796/female 46,589)
15-64 years: 49% (male 47,386/female 50,412)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 3,383/female 4,013) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 16.2 years
male: 15.7 years
female: 16.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
3.13% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
39.72 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.026 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.843 male(s)/female
total population: 0.976 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 40.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.64 years
male: 66.03 years
female: 69.3 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.53 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)
Nationality:
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean
Ethnic groups:
mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Religions:
Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)
Languages:
Portuguese (official)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.3%
male: 85%
female: 62% (1991 est.)
Government Sao Tome and Principe
Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Sao Tome
geographic coordinates: 0 12 N, 6 39 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome
note: Principe has had self government since 29 April 1995
Independence:
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Constitution:
approved March 1990, effective 10 September 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ (since 21 April 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 30 July 2006 (next to be held July 2011); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president
election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president; percent of vote - Fradique DE MENEZES 60%, Patrice TROVOADA 38.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - MDFM-PCD 37.2%, MLSTP 28.9%, ADI 20.0%, NR 4.7%, others 9.2%; seats by party - MDFM-PCD 23, MLSTP 19, ADI 12, NR 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; Force for Change Democratic Movement or MDFM; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; New Way Movement or NR; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA
chancery: 400 Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022
telephone: [1] (212) 317-0580
FAX: [1] (212) 935-7348
consulate(s): Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Communications Sao Tome and Principe
Telephones - main lines in use:
7,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
12,000 (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate facilities
domestic: minimal system
international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)
Radios:
38,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
2 (2002)
Televisions:
23,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.st
Internet hosts:
735 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2002)
Internet users:
20,000 (2005)
Transportation Sao Tome and Principe
Airports:
2 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Roadways:
total: 320 km
paved: 218 km
unpaved: 102 km (1999)
Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 21,527 GRT/29,823 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 7
foreign-owned: 3 (Egypt 1, Greece 1, Lebanon 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Sao Tome
Military Sao Tome and Principe
Military branches:
Armed Forces of Sao Tome and Principe (FASTP): Army, Coast Guard, Presidential Guard (2004)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 33,438
females age 18-49: 35,279 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 25,950
females age 18-49: 28,660 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$581,729 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.8% (2006 est.)
Military - note:
Sao Tome and Principe's army is a tiny force with almost no resources at its disposal and would be wholly ineffective operating unilaterally; infantry equipment is considered simple to operate and maintain but may require refurbishment or replacement after 25 years in tropical climates; poor pay, working conditions, and alleged nepotism in the promotion of officers have been problems in the past, as reflected in the 1995 and 2003 coups; these issues are being addressed with foreign assistance aimed at improving the army and its focus on realistic security concerns; command is exercised from the president, through the Minister of Defense, to the Chief of the Armed Forces staff (2005)
Transnational Issues Sao Tome and Principe
Disputes - international:
none

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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