aneki.com

  Home   Richest   Most Populated   Largest   Most Expensive   Poorest  Top 10 Lists..     
 World Regions
Africa
Middle East
Europe
Asia
North America
Central America
The Caribbean
South America
Oceania

World Map

Cities
Maps
Flags

Travel
 •  Embassies
 •  Consulates
 •  Visas
 •  Passports

Shop
 •  Recipes
 •  Books
 •  Music
 •  Dvds
 •  Dictionaries

Sports
 •  Athletes
 •  Performance

cover

Resources

Bosnia and Herzegovina Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

More Bosnia and Herzegovina Information
• More information about Bosnia and Herzegovina including positions in various world rankings
• Bosnia and Herzegovina map
• Bosnia and Herzegovina flag

New Additions
• Countries with the Highest Recycling Rates
• Countries with the Most Women in Parliament
• Countries with the Biggest TV Watchers
• Countries with the Highest Incidence of Lung Cancer
• Countries with the Highest Incidence of Breast Cancer
more lists

Most Popular
• Richest Countries
• Poorest Countries
• Countries to have won the most Beauty Pageants
• Most Expensive Countries to Live in
• The World's Richst Man
• Countries with the Most Billionaires
more lists

 
Introduction Bosnia and Herzegovina
Background:
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR plans to phase out its mission beginning in 2007.
People Bosnia and Herzegovina
Population:
4,552,198 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 353,163/female 331,133)
15-64 years: 70.4% (male 1,615,011/female 1,587,956)
65 years and over: 14.6% (male 273,240/female 391,695) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.9 years
male: 37.7 years
female: 40.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.003% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
8.8 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
9.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.067 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.698 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 9.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.17 years
male: 74.57 years
female: 82.03 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
900 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groups:
Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Religions:
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
Languages:
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 98.4%
female: 91.1% (2000 est.)
Government Bosnia and Herzegovina
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Government type:
emerging federal democratic republic
Capital:
name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision
Independence:
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed 1 March 1992; independence declared 3 March 1992)
National holiday:
National Day, 25 November (1943)
Constitution:
the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995 in Paris, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (chairman since 6 November 2006; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Zeljko KOMSIC (since 1 October 2006 - Croat) and Haris SILAJDZIC (since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years); the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each national election; election last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the votes for the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the votes for the Bosniak seat
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 February 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since NA 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since NA 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Milan JELIC (since 9 November 2006)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures
elections: national House of Representatives - elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); House of Peoples - last constituted in January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
election results: national House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9, SBiH 8, SNSD 7, SDP 5, SDS 3, HDZ-BH 3, HDZ 1990 2, other 5; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28, SBiH 24, SDP 17, HDZ-BH 8, HDZ100 7, other 14; and a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 1i7 Serb, 7 other); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41, SDS 17, PDP 8, DNS 4, SBiH 4, SPRS 3, SDA 3, other 3; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including eight Croats, eight Bosniaks, eight Serbs, and four members of the smaller communities
Judicial branch:
BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities); a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005
note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bisera TURKOVIC
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Douglas L. McELHANEY
embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag description:
a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle
Communications Bosnia and Herzegovina
Telephones - main lines in use:
968,900 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.594 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)
Televisions:
NA
Internet country code:
.ba
Internet hosts:
31,490 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2000)
Internet users:
806,400 (2005)
Transportation Bosnia and Herzegovina
Airports:
28 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 12 (2006)
Heliports:
5 (2006)
Railways:
total: 608 km
standard gauge: 608 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
total: 21,846 km
paved: 11,425 km (4,686 km of interurban roads)
unpaved: 10,421 km (2005)
Waterways:
Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
Military Bosnia and Herzegovina
Military branches:
VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 16 years of age in times of war; 18 years of age for Republika Srpska; 17 years of age for voluntary military service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; by law, military obligations cover all healthy men between the ages of 18 and 60, and all women between the ages of 18 and 55; service obligation is 4 months (July 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,119,508
females age 18-49: 1,079,435 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 910,539
females age 18-49: 881,446 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 32,942
females age 18-49: 31,466 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$234.3 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
4.5% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Bosnia and Herzegovina
Disputes - international:
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 7,458 (Croatia)
IDPs: 180,251 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims displaced in 1992-95 war) (2006)
Illicit drugs:
increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










About aneki.com  | Contact Us  |  E-mail this page | 


Copyright 2008 aneki.com All rights reserved.
  Categories
Economic
Social
Technological
Environmental
Academic
Miscellaneous

 Facebook
  StumbleUpon Toolbar StumbleUpon
   Digg
 Delicious Toolbar Delicious