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Introduction Philippines
Background:
The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during WWII, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and an ongoing cease-fire and peace talks with another.
People Philippines
Population:
91,077,287 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.5% (male 16,043,257/female 15,415,334)
15-64 years: 61.3% (male 27,849,584/female 28,008,293)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,631,866/female 2,128,953) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.7 years
male: 22.2 years
female: 23.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.764% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
24.48 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.994 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.767 male(s)/female
total population: 0.999 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.51 years
male: 67.61 years
female: 73.55 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
3.05 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
animal contact disease: rabies (2007)
Nationality:
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups:
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
Religions:
Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Languages:
Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2002)
Government Philippines
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
79 provinces and 117 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Markina, Masbate, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Oriental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga
Independence:
12 June 1898 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US
Constitution:
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO) elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (212 members representing districts plus 24 sectoral party-list members; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held on 14 May 2007); House of Representatives - elections last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held on 14 May 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - Lakas 30%, LP 13%, KNP 13%, independents 17%, others 27%; seats by party - Lakas 7, LP 3, KNP (coalition) 3, independents 4, others 6; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected vice president; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 93, NPC 53, LP 34, LDP 11, others 20; party-listers 24
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Political parties and leaders:
Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino (Kampi) [Ronaldo PUNO]; Koalisyon ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino (Coalition of United Filipinos) or KNP (LDP, PDP-Laban, and PMP parties); Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA]; Liberal Party or LP [Franklin DRILON/Eli QUINTO]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; APEC [Ernesto PABLO, Edgar VALDEZ]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Edgar VALDEZ, Ernesto PABLO, and Sunny Rose MADAMBA]; AVE [Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Philippines [Ernesto GIDAYA]
International organization participation:
APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, San Jose (Northern Mariana Islands), Tamuning (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 528-6300
FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top
Communications Philippines
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.438 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
32.81 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry with roughly 10 mobile cellular subscribers for every fixed-line subscriber
international: country code - 63; 11 international gateways; submarine cables to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, Brunei, and Malaysia among others
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 375, FM 596, shortwave 4 (each shortwave station operates on multiple frequencies in the language of the target audience) (2006)
Radios:
11.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
233 (plus 1,480 CATV networks) (2006)
Televisions:
3.7 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.ph
Internet hosts:
111,262 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
33 (2000)
Internet users:
7.82 million (2005)
Transportation Philippines
Airports:
256 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 83
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 10 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 173
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 69
under 914 m: 99 (2006)
Heliports:
2 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 105 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 897 km
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 200,037 km
paved: 19,804 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2003)
Waterways:
3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 403 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,661,285 GRT/6,426,183 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 82, cargo 115, chemical tanker 13, container 6, liquefied gas 5, livestock carrier 17, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 73, petroleum tanker 42, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 13, vehicle carrier 13
foreign-owned: 66 (Greece 5, Hong Kong 3, Japan 26, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 19, Norway 3, UAE 1, US 8)
registered in other countries: 41 (Australia 1, Bahamas 1, Cambodia 1, Cayman Islands 1, Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 16, Indonesia 1, Panama 13, Singapore 5) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Iligan, Iloilo, Manila, Surigao
Military Philippines
Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Philippine Air Force (Hukbomg Himpapawid ng Pilipinas) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 20,131,179
females age 18-49: 20,009,526 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 15,170,096
females age 18-49: 16,931,191 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 907,542
females age 18-49: 878,712 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$836.9 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.1% (2006 est.)
Transnational Issues Philippines
Disputes - international:
Philippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 60,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2006)
Illicit drugs:
domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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