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Mozambique Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

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Introduction Mozambique
Background:
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His newly elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, has promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment.
People Mozambique
Population:
20,905,585
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.7% (male 4,692,126/female 4,647,960)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 5,345,618/female 5,633,511)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 244,886/female 341,484) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.4 years
male: 16.9 years
female: 17.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.803% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
38.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
20.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.717 male(s)/female
total population: 0.968 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 109.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 112.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 106.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 40.9 years
male: 41.4 years
female: 40.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
5.29 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
12.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.3 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
110,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)
Nationality:
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Religions:
Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
Languages:
Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
Government Mozambique
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 58 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution:
30 November 1990
Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires James DUDLEY
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
Communications Mozambique
Telephones - main lines in use:
69,700 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.22 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system but not available generally (extremely low density with less than 1 main line per 100 persons)
domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Radios:
730,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (2001)
Televisions:
67,600 (2000)
Internet country code:
.mz
Internet hosts:
6,985 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2002)
Internet users:
138,000 (2005)
Transportation Mozambique
Airports:
158 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 136
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 87 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 918 km; refined products 294 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1999)
Waterways:
460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2002)
Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Beira, Maputo, Nacala
Military Mozambique
Military branches:
Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 3,793,373 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,751,223 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 185,314 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$78.03 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.9% (2006 est.)
Transnational Issues Mozambique
Disputes - international:
none
Illicit drugs:
southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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