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Finland Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

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Introduction Finland
Background:
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
People Finland
Population:
5,238,460 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.9% (male 449,548/female 433,253)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,768,996/female 1,727,143)
65 years and over: 16.4% (male 344,798/female 514,722) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.6 years
male: 40 years
female: 43.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.127% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
10.42 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
9.93 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.958 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.66 years
male: 75.15 years
female: 82.31 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups:
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.2%, Sami 0.1%
Religions:
Lutheran Church of Finland 84.2%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5% (2003)
Languages:
Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2003)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
Government Finland
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 58 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
Independence:
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution:
1 March 2000
Legal system:
civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Eero HEINALUOMA (since 24 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment
election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%
note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 March 2007 (next to be held March 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 23.1%, Kok 22.3%, SDP 21.4%, VAS 8.8%, VIHR 8.5%, KD 4.9%, SFP 4.5%, True Finns 4.1%, other 3.4%; seats by party - Kesk 51, Kok 50, SDP 45, VAS 17, VIHR 15, SFP 9, KD 7, True Finns 5, other 1
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green League or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns
International organization participation:
AfDB, Arctic Council, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pekka LINTU
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn WARE
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
Flag description:
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Communications Finland
Telephones - main lines in use:
2.12 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
5.231 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finland Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:
7.7 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
Televisions:
3.2 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.fi; note - the ICANN has assigned the ccTLD of .ax to the Aland Islands
Internet hosts:
1.634 million (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2002)
Internet users:
3.286 million (2005)
Transportation Finland
Airports:
148 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 76
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 14 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 72
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 67 (2006)
Pipelines:
gas 694 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 5,741 km
broad gauge: 5,741 km 1.524-m gauge (2,619 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 78,189 km
paved: 50,633 km (includes 653 km of expressways)
unpaved: 27,556 km (2006)
Waterways:
7,842 km
note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 87 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,250,600 GRT/952,072 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 22, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 25
foreign-owned: 3 (Norway 1, Russia 1, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 48 (Bahamas 8, Germany 2, Gibraltar 3, Luxembourg 4, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 13, Norway 4, Sweden 11, UK 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Hamina, Hanko, Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Pori, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma, Turku
Military Finland
Military branches:
Finnish Defense Forces: Army, Navy (includes coastal defense forces), Air Force (2003)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (October 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,121,275
females age 18-49: 1,076,684 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 913,617
females age 18-49: 875,689 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 32,040
females age 18-49: 30,519 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1.8 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Finland
Disputes - international:
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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