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Egypt Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

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Introduction Egypt
Background:
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
People Egypt
Population:
80,335,036 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.2% (male 13,234,428/female 12,631,681)
15-64 years: 63.2% (male 25,688,703/female 25,082,200)
65 years and over: 4.6% (male 1,576,376/female 2,121,648) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.2 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 24.6 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.721% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
22.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
5.11 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.743 male(s)/female
total population: 1.017 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 31.22 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.57 years
male: 69.04 years
female: 74.22 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.77 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
12,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
700 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups:
Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Religions:
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 68.3%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Government Egypt
Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, As Suways, Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj
Independence:
28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution:
11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980 and 25 May 2005
Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Legislative branch:
bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura that functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)
elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council - last held May-June 2004 (next to be held May-June 2007)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Naji AL-GHATRIFI]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Political pressure groups and leaders:
despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned
International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, COMESA, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, ONUB, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.
embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
Communications Egypt
Telephones - main lines in use:
10.396 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
14.045 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 20; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Radios:
20.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
98 (September 1995)
Televisions:
7.7 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.eg
Internet hosts:
2,254 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
50 (2000)
Internet users:
5 million (2005)
Transportation Egypt
Airports:
88 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Heliports:
3 (2006)
Pipelines:
condensate 464 km; condensate/gas 94 km; gas 6,021 km; liquid petroleum gas 897 km; oil 5,120 km; oil/gas/water 36 km; refined products 897 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 5,063 km
standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways:
total: 92,370 km
paved: 74,820 km
unpaved: 17,550 km (2004)
Waterways:
3,500 km
note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 76 ships (1000 GRT or over) 987,524 GRT/1,467,139 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 14, cargo 33, container 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 9 (Denmark 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 2)
registered in other countries: 49 (Bolivia 2, Cambodia 8, Georgia 8, Honduras 4, North Korea 2, Panama 16, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 2, Sierra Leone 1, Thailand 1, unknown 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit
Military Egypt
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for conscript military service; 3-year service obligation (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 18,347,560
females age 18-49: 17,683,904 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 15,540,234
females age 18-49: 14,939,378 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 802,920
females age 18-49: 764,176 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$2.44 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3.4% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Egypt
Disputes - international:
while Sudan retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip to deter terrorist, smuggling, and other illegal activities; Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify themselves as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 60,000 - 80,000 (Iraq), 70,255 (Palestinian Territories), 13,446 (Sudan) (2006)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Egypt is a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe to Israel for the purpose of sexual exploitation; these women generally arrive as tourists and are subsequently trafficked through the Sinai Desert by Bedouin tribes; men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are believed to be trafficked through the Sinai Desert to Israel and Europe for labor exploitation; some Egyptian children from rural areas are trafficked within the country to work as domestic servants or laborers in the agriculture industry
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Egypt is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to address trafficking over the past year, particularly in the area of law enforcement
Illicit drugs:
transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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