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Botswana Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

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Introduction Botswana
Background:
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
People Botswana
Population:
1,815,508
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 35.8% (male 330,377/female 319,376)
15-64 years: 60.3% (male 549,879/female 545,148)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 28,725/female 42,003) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 20.9 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.503% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
23.17 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
13.63 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.034 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.009 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.684 male(s)/female
total population: 1.003 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 43.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 45.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.58 years
male: 51.55 years
female: 49.58 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
37.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
350,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
33,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)
Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups:
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Religions:
Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)
Languages:
Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.8%
male: 76.9%
female: 82.4% (2003 est.)
Government Botswana
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast, Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Independence:
30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998); Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998); Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held in 2009); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body with 8 permanent members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving 5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63 seats, 57 members are directly elected by popular vote, 4 are appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney-General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 51.7%, BNF 26.1%, BCP 16.6%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1
Judicial branch:
High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. CANAVAN
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 312782
Flag description:
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
Communications Botswana
Telephones - main lines in use:
132,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
823,100 (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast
international: country code - 267; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios:
252,720 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (2001)
Televisions:
31,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.bw
Internet hosts:
5,499 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2001)
Internet users:
60,000 (2002)
Transportation Botswana
Airports:
85 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 75
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 55
under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Railways:
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
total: 24,355 km
paved: 8,914 km
unpaved: 15,441 km (2004)
Military Botswana
Military branches:
Botswana Defense Force (includes an air wing) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 350,649
females age 18-49: 361,642 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 136,322
females age 18-49: 136,315 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 21,103
females age 18-49: 21,379 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$325.5 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3.5% (2006 est.)
Transnational Issues Botswana
Disputes - international:
the alignment of the boundary with Namibia in the Kwando/Linyanti/Chobe River, including the Situngu marshlands, was resolved amicably in 2003; concerns from international experts and local populations over the ecology of the Okavango Delta in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls) along the Angola-Namibia border; Botswana has built electric fences to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has long supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing the short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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