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Ecuador Facts
• Introduction
• People
• Government
• Communications
• Transportation
• Military
• Transnational Issues

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Introduction Ecuador
Background:
What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Protests in Quito have contributed to the mid-term ouster of Ecuador's last three democratically elected Presidents.
People Ecuador
Population:
13,755,680 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.6% (male 2,282,319/female 2,196,685)
15-64 years: 62.3% (male 4,271,848/female 4,301,149)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 330,302/female 373,377) (2007 est.)
Median age:
total: 23.9 years
male: 23.4 years
female: 24.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.554% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
21.91 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
4.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
-2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.993 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.885 male(s)/female
total population: 1.002 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.62 years
male: 73.74 years
female: 79.63 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.63 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
21,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,700 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Languages:
Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 94%
female: 91% (2003 est.)
Government Ecuador
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Constitution:
10 August 1998
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 October 2006 with a runoff election on 26 November 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
election results: Rafael CORREA Delgado elected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 56.7%; Alvaro NOBOA 43.3%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRIAN 28; PSP 24; PSC 13; ID 7; PRE 6; MUPP-NP 6; RED 5; UDC 5; other 6; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Political parties and leaders:
Alianza PAIS Movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Christian Democratic Union or UDC [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP; Democratic Left or ID [Guillermo LANDAZURI]; Ethical and Democratic Network or RED [Leon ROLDOS]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Leon FEBRES CORDERO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
International organization participation:
CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Benigno GALLEGOS Chiriboga
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Jersey City (New Jersey), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Linda L. JEWELL
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890
FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Flag description:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
Communications Ecuador
Telephones - main lines in use:
1.701 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
6.246 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Radios:
5 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions:
2.5 million (2001)
Internet country code:
.ec
Internet hosts:
19,027 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
31 (2001)
Internet users:
616,000 (2005)
Transportation Ecuador
Airports:
359 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 98
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 43 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 261
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 228 (2006)
Heliports:
1 (2006)
Pipelines:
extra heavy crude oil 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,386 km; refined products 1,185 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 966 km
narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
total: 43,197 km
paved: 6,467 km
unpaved: 36,730 km (2004)
Waterways:
1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 31 ships (1000 GRT or over) 184,819 GRT/300,339 DWT
by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 7, petroleum tanker 21, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 1, Paraguay 1)
registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
Military Ecuador
Military branches:
Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:
20 years of age for conscript military service; 12-month service obligation (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 20-49: 2,792,770
females age 20-49: 2,849,519 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 20-49: 2,338,428
females age 20-49: 2,380,327 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 133,922
females age 20-49: 129,758 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$650 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.9% (2006 est.)
Transnational Issues Ecuador
Disputes - international:
organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 9,851 (Colombia); note - UNHCR estimates as many as 250,000 Columbians are seeking asylum in Ecuador, many of whom do not register as refugees for fear of deportation (2006)
Illicit drugs:
significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with over half of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

This page was last updated on 17 April, 2007


 

Source: CIA World Factbook










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